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This three-year NERC funded project will give new insight into the evolution and development of teeth and their arrangement in the mouth (‘dentition’) in jawed vertebrates (
The jawed vertebrates evolved into different types of animals, of which there are two major groups still living today. One is the cartilaginous fishes, or Chondrichthyes, while the other is Osteichthyes, or bony fish. One group of bony fish eventually evolved into mammals, like humans and mice (which are often used as laboratory models for human dentition). A functional dentition is the key to the evolutionary success of the jawed vertebrates, and to understand how teeth and dentitions evolved, we will investigate development of dentitions in living and fossil cartilaginous fishes, and compare our findings to basal osteichthyans such as the paddlefish and bichir.
Our  team hope to discover whether these chondrichthyans and osteichthyans share a common dentition pattern despite having very different dentitions in the adult. We will use CT scanning techniques to generate 3D images of embryos and adult specimens of modern-day sharks and rays as well as the paddlefish and birchir. We will use 3D rendering software for visualisation, animation and analysis of these specimens ( We are using micro CT scans taken at the Dental Institute KCL with a GE Locus SP, creating volumes with voxel sizes 6.5um, rendered using the software program Drishti ( and Avizo (
Another research group involved in this project is based at the University of Sheffield, and will look at the genetics behind different types of tooth development and dentition. This will help us understand how dentitions are patterned as well as the genes are involved in the regeneration of shark teeth. This will give insight into comparable genes in humans, and why humans and mammals only develop one or two sets of teeth in their lifetime, compared to their animals such as sharks, which constantly regenerate their teeth.


Our mission is to document the biodiversity of sponges on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

Mycoheterotrophic plant species (MHP, Leake 1994) lack chlorophyll and depend on their mycorrhizal fungus for carbon and nutrient supply. MHP were first counted by Johow (1889), who estimated 160 species of “achlorophyllous humus plants” in 43 genera and 5 families. Schmucker (1959) already counted 352 “holosaprophytic” species in 48 genera and 6 families. Furman and Trappe (1971) referred to “roughly 400 species”, 50 genera and 7 families. In an review on MHPs (Leake 1994) lists 417 MHP species in 87 genera and 11 families. My own preliminary reassessment of Leake's list in 2008 resulted in 438 species/84 genera/10 families, but was just a rough estimate. The most recent assessment is of Merckx (2013) in his introducing chapter to the first book exclusively dedicated to MHP: Mycoheterotrophy - The Biology of Plants living on Fungi. On page 9 he says: "At least 514 species of angiosperms and a single liverwort species entirely depend on fungal carbon during their complete life cycle". This website aims to set up a list of all mycoheterotrophic plants on earth, combined with additional informations such as synonymy, pictures and a bibliography. So far, the list of accepted species with taxonomic comments as well as synonyms (listed above the accepted taxa, both in alphabetic order) are complete except for Orchidaceae. The bibliography (almost 1300 references) collects the bibliographic data of the taxonomic literature mentioned up to now, as well as other articles dealing with all aspects of mycoheterotrophic plants. The citations in the taxonomic comments (pages) are hyperlinked with the bibliographic data. You find the taxonomic comments under the flag 'Descriptions' when choosing a species name in the taxonomy 'Mycoheterotrophic Plants'.
According to this list 48 non-orchid genera contain mycoheterotrophic species, and 280 non-orchid species are mycoheterotrophic. Dictyostega orobanchoides, Hypopitys monotropa, Voyria aurantiaca, and V. corymbosa are subdivided in subspecies, Afrothismia winkleri, Monotropastrum humile, and Thismia hexagona have one variety each, and Epirixanthes papuana as well as E. elongatata have a form alba, respectively. Aditionally, 20 genera and 75 species of mycoheterotrophic orchids are listed, however, this is far from being complete.
The criterium to be included in this list is "optical achlorophylly" or at least nearly such. We are aware of intergrading dependences on the mycorrhizal fungus even in green plants (see the pages The case of "Pyrola aphylla", Obolaria and Bartonia or Stemona aphylla), as well as of different amounts of chlorophyll content, which often is even hidden by other colouring compounds.

This site is designed to aid identification of Aframomum (Zingiberaceae) species from the Sangha Trinational Area in Central Africa.
The checklist of Aframomum species included found in the Sangha Trinational area has been provided by Dr David J. Harris, Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2012)
This site has been constructed as part of an MSc project.